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1862 - Civil War Campaign Rules
Player Information

I. Weather

Weather varies by the month of the year. In hot weather there is good potential for straggling on any march. With rain, movement may be slowed and fords may become impassable. When the weather is freezing some attrition will be suffered during any movement.

II. The Map

The map is divided into hexes, each about four miles square. Only major features are noted. Each hex contains a number of other features such as small streams, roads, villages and so on.
  • ROADS - There are two types of roads - major and secondary. Major roads are well laid and generally hard surfaced. They always cross water at a bridge. Secondary roads are usually dirt and typically cross water at fords.
  • RAILROADS - These are primarily used for supply purposes but may also be used as secondary roads. They always cross water on bridges. Also used for rail movement.
  • MAJOR RIVERS - These are generally impassable without long delays except at fords and bridges.
  • MINOR RIVERS - These are generally difficult to cross other than at fords.
  • MOUNTAINS - These are areas of extremely rough or impassable terrain.
  • FOOTHILLS - These are very hilly areas which would be very difficult to cross when not on a road.
  • WILDERNESS - Heavily wooded areas that have not been developed. Difficult to move through, easy to hide in.
  • PASSES - These are the roads that cross mountain areas.
  • TOWNS - These are typically a small collection of buildings which serve as a local market center.
  • CITIES - These are usually fairly large areas that serve as regional market centers.

III. Organization of forces

Both armies are divided into corps, divisions, and brigades. Additionally, each force will have supply trains (food, ammunition, ambulances) that need to accompany it on marches. The lowest level unit that can be given independent orders is the brigade or supply train. Divisions receive some benefits if ordered to operate as a single unit. To be in supply a unit must be within 8 road miles, or four cross country miles, of its division's supply trains. Brigades operating independently can live off the countryside for food, but do have trains for ambulances and ammunition.

IV. Subordinates

Each military unit, and the sub commands within it, has an officer in charge. Each of these officers has a "personality" that includes their popularity, reliability, tactical ability, strategic competency, and political clout. These personalities determine how the subordinate will act when not under the direct supervision of the player. They are also ranked in terms of their seniority in the army, corps, division, and brigade.
If any of these subordinates performs in an unsatisfactory fashion they may be removed from their position. The next ranking officer will be promoted to fill their position, or you may select another officer for the position. The army commander may brevet any officer who performs with distinction, up to the level of Brigadier General. Subordinates will attempt to carry out their orders. If they are cut off from communication, meet a situation that requires an immediate response, or cannot carry out their orders they will act on their own initiative.

V. Formations

1. March Formations
When a unit is marching it will be spread out as indicated below. Infantry regiments in normal and forced march will be in "route columns" formation, with stands one inch apart in column formation. On the tabletop regiments in this formation move 20 inches on roads, 12 inches in open, 6 inches in broken and 3 inches in rough. A disorder roll is needed to go to any other formation. The unit may not fire and saves from enemy fire on a "1". Its morale effect is as skirmishers. In cautious march regiments are in march column.

Unless specifically ordered otherwise, formations are as follows:
  • Normal March
    1. Each regiment occupies about 400 yards
    2. Each brigade is separated by 250 yards
    3. Each gun section occupies 150 yards
    4. Each wagon in the train occupies 150 yards
    5. Advance and rear guards add 500 yards to the length of the column.
    6. Guns are grouped in front of the wagon train.
    7. One regiment forms the advance, and one the rear guard.
  • Cautious March
    1. Regiments occupy about 250 yards
    2. Each brigade is separated by 100 yards
    3. Each gun section occupies 125 yards
    4. Guns accompany their assigned regiment, if applicable.
    5. Each wagon in the train occupies 150 yards
    6. One regiment is advance guard, one is rear guard.
  • Forced March
    1. Each regiment occupies 400 yards
    2. Each brigade is separated by 100 yards
    3. Each gun section occupies 125 yards
    4. No rear or advance guard
  • Non Moving Formations
    • Hold March - Unit forms trains off roadway and deploys around them, one brigade to front and one to the rear. The rest camp near the wagons. This force occupies the distance of their supply trains. There is little or no delay if ordered to resume their march.
    • Ravage - Units will be quite spread out. Artillery and supply trains will be at a central location, otherwise regiments will be scattered through the settled areas performing their duties in disorder.
    • Formed - Set up as player desires.

VI. Tactical Battle considerations

  1. Coming into contact
    When units on opposing sides try to occupy the same space there will be contact. This may lead to a tactical battle. Contact can result from formed units advancing on each other, marching units bumping into each other or a variety of other circumstances.
    If a player is with a contacting force he or she may make the decision as to initiate a tactical battle or not. If a subordinate is in command he will decided on an appropriate response.
    If a tactical battle develops other units may or may not respond to it. If ordered to form for battle, about one hour is necessary for each brigade in the unit.

  2. Size of units
    Units may be reduced in size due to previous casualties or straggling. Each regiment or battery that has forced marched, marched in hot weather, or marched while tired will be subject to straggling. The longer a unit has marched under adverse conditions the greater will be its straggling. Losses due to straggling will be determined prior to the table battle.

  3. Maps
    Maps: Each player will be given a set of two or three maps of the battle area.
    1. The Grand Map - This is a large scale map showing the hexes, the campaign terrain and the forces known to the player. This will usually cover ten or more hexes.
    2. The Hex Map - This will show the terrain in the hex where the battle takes place. The actual detail on these maps will vary depending on the circumstances. From these maps the defender selects the terrain on which the battle will occur. These maps may be used to order flank marches and will show the position of the unit's trains.
    3. The Table Map - This is the detailed tabletop terrain map.

  4. Battlefield Losses
    1. There are four types of potential losses in any battle:
      1. Routers, some of whom may never return.
      2. Walking wounded, who immediately return to the unit.
      3. Lightly wounded, who are carried on ambulances to local hospital facilities. A percent of these may eventually return to the unit.
      4. Seriously wounded and killed, who are permanently lost.
    2. Any unit that suffers losses in a tactical battle will have significantly more of its troops returned if it stays on the field the day following the engagement, whether the battle is won or lost.
    3. Guns lost can only be replaced by captured guns or moving the unit to the capital to pick up any available replacements. A unit may never have more than its original gun assignment. Additional captured guns may be sent to a depot for storage for later use.
    4. If your forces loose a battle there may be additional people and equipment captured and a potential morale deficit.
    5. During a battle a player may declare a rout. The battle will end in a random number of turns after the declaration ( one to six turns). The looser will probably have additional losses, including supply trains, beyond those suffered in the battle.
    6. Units that force march into a battle will probably suffer straggling of troops and guns.
    7. Units that suffer losses will retain those losses throughout the campaign.

  5. Losses, Recovery, and retreat
    In a tabletop battle units may be reduced by straggling, routing, capture, or by casualties from fire. Guns may also be destroyed or captured. In any battle staying on the field the following day will significantly increase recovery of losses.
    1. Routs - Not all routers will return to their unit. A force which stays on the field will have significantly more routers return than will a force that leaves the field.
    2. Casualties - The number of men who are immediately or eventually returned to the unit will depend on the outcome of the battle and the availability of hospital facilities and ambulance space.
    3. Guns - Cannons which are destroyed or captured can only be replaced in the field by capturing enemy guns. Excess guns may be sent to a depot or given to another unit. Captured guns are normally converted into a type originally carried by the unit.
    4. Recovery of Losses - After a battle a number of men will immediately return to their unit, some will return after a recovery period in a stationary hospital, and others will never return.
    5. Retreat - If your force is pushed off the table or suffers a point loss that requires it to retreat before nightfall there will be greater losses than if you hold on until nightfall and order a retreat.
      When retreating, the distance your force will move will vary depending on the circumstances. Retreats typically move less distance than do routs.
      An army that retreats or is routed from the field suffers some morale penalties for a number of days following the battle.
      A player may decide to "declare a rout" and the tactical battle ends.
    6. Pursuit - If on the winning side you may order any command to pursue the retreating foe. This may result in increased casualties to the losing side.

VII. Movement

The ability to move is based on the type of terrain moved through, formation, weather, supply state, traffic, orders, and the ability of the commander of the unit.
  1. Formation
    1. Column - Unit may use roads
    2. Formed - Unit may not use roads
  2. Terrain
    1. Roads - two types
      • Major Roads (pikes)- Hard Surfaced and graded.
      • Secondary Roads and railroads - Considered soft surfaced for foot movement (subject to delays).
    2. Cross Country
      • Clear - Farm land and small lanes
      • Wilderness - some paths, but easy to get lost
      • Foothills - rugged, difficult terrain
      • Mountains - Impassible.
    3. Fords
      Most secondary roads cross water at fords.
  3. Move Distances
    • In Column Formation

      Miles per day on Roads
      Infantry - Normal March = 16; Cautious March = 12; Forced March = 20
      Cavalry - Normal March = 24; Cautious March = 16; Forced March = 32

      Miles per day Cross Country
      Infantry - Normal March = 8; Cautious March = 4; Forced March = 12
      Cavalry - Normal March = 12; Cautious March = 8; Forced March = 16
      Cavalry Scout/Screen = 12

    • While Formed
      In clear terrain: Infantry = 6; Cavalry = 10
      In wilderness areas: Infantry = 3; Cavalry = 5
      In foothills: Infantry = 1; Cavalry = 2

    Extra Heavy Artillery, Reserve Ammunition Wagons, and supply trains NEVER move more than 16 miles a day. If the unit they are with moves further than this, they will be left behind.
    On a good day an infantry unit may march up to 8 miles more than this basic rate (Cavalry up to 12 more). On a bad day, a unit may not move at all, but typically will move at least 4 miles.

    Movement may be delayed due to:
    • Using secondary roads
    • Traffic jams
    • Crossing fords or rivers
    • Being tired
    • Bad weather
    • Poor commanders
    • Out of supply
    • Luck

    Movement may be increased due to:
    • Losing a battle
    • Good commanders
    • Imperative orders*
    • Clear and present danger
    • Luck
    *(Imperative orders always work the first time, but with each subsequent use they become less effective as motivaters.)

    To form or unform a unit will generally take about four miles away from the march.

    Units may be ordered to march at night, but it can be done only at the normal or cautious rate, and counts as a forced march fpr aatigue and stragglers.
    When available railroad trains take about a day to load a unit, about a day to unload a unit, and move at a rate of about 80 miles a day. Infantry may load anywhere on a rail line, but everything else must load or unload in a town, city or rail junction. It may take some time to gather sufficient railroad trains to begin rail movement. A similar procedure is available to the Union with sea transport.

  4. Fatigue

    Units will suffer fatigue if they are ordered to march for a number of days in a row. Although it will vary by unit, more than six days of continuous cautious or normal marching, or more than two days of forced marching will cause problems for the unit beyond those normally suffered. For cavalry, more than six (or so) days of continuous operation (meaning having to move, picket, etc.) will have a similar effect. A battle is considered a day of forced marching. To recover from fatigue, infantry must spend one day "in camp" (not moving) and in supply. Cavalry must spend one day "in camp" in a friendly town or city, or with the army reserve. If involved in a battle, units will have morale detriments when they force march over four miles that day. Units that are tired will have straggling, with the longer they march tired, the more straggling. Moving tired has an especially severe impact on artillery.

  5. Occupying space

    When not marching any number of units may occupy one hex. However, when moving on roads each unit and its trains occupy a certain lengthof roadway. When a unit is marching on a road it cannot move throughor be moved through in any direction by other marching units.
    Cavalry brigades always occupy one hex while marching.
    Marching units occupy a variable amount of space depending on their size. Each brigade (or supply train) occupies one and one third miles of roadway when operating independently. A division, regardless of its composition, occupies four miles of roadway (one hex).
    If two or more roads occupy the same hex, then that number of units may march through the hex at the same time.

  6. Scouting
    What is seen and who can see it, and how they determine what they see are based on the following:
    • Any military Unit:
      1. Forced March - What is on the road.
      2. Normal March - What is in the hex passed through.
      3. Cautious March - Hex they move through, hex to each side if it contains a road. Plus a chance to see into adjacent hex.
      4. Deployed - Hex in and all adjacent hexes. After one day deployed, know what is within eight miles
    • Cavalry only:
      1. Scout/Screen - May scout or screen one hex per regiment in the brigade.
      2. Picket - Main body stays in one place, important locations are picketed by small groups. If they see anything they will report to the main body. There is a chance they will be captured before they can report.

VIII. Orders and information

A. Communications
Communication between players and their subordinates may be either face-to-face or by message (courier or telegraph).
  1. Face-To-Face: When two players are in the same hex they may meet and talk freely. Subordinates in the same hex with a player will immediately change their actions if ordered to do so.
  2. Messages: When not in the same hex all communication must be by message. Subordinates will continue to carry out previously issued orders until new ones are received. The time it takes for a message to travel will vary depending on the communication mode and the distance. Messages will always be sent by the quickest means unless ordered otherwise.
  3. Communication Modes
    • Courier - Couriers travel about 40 miles a day on major roads. They may become lost, captured, injured, or otherwise stopped from delivering their message.
    • Telegraph - Telegraph stations exist at every city and town marked on the campaign map. Each station has a number of riders who will deliver the message from the station to the unit. If a city has been captured by the enemy, communications are cut to all areas further from the capital. Telegraph lines may be cut or tapped.
  4. A unit will usually not communicate with the commander until it has completed its orders or encounters an unusual situation.

B. Information
You will constantly be receiving information of varying quality from a variety of sources. The only information that you have any control over will come from orders given your units. Around nightfall of each day you will receive reports from your units and other information.

C. Orders
Once you have received your day's information you issue orders for the next day. You may order units to perform some action at night if you are close to them. If units receive their orders they will attempt to carry them out beginning at dawn of the next day.
The orders listed below are the most common ones used, and ones that will be clearly understood by your subordinates. You may issue any orders you wish, however.
  • March Orders
    Units that you want to march should be given a destination, a route (if necessary), and one of the following march types
    1. Normal march (Assumed unless ordered otherwise) - March at a good pace with minimal scouting.
    2. Cautious march - March carefully with flankers out and checking for potential enemy in the area.
    3. Forced march - Move as rapidly as possible. Trains left behind. Good potential for straggling.
    4. Hold march - Camp along the road but be ready to march immediately if so ordered.
  • Form Orders
    To move into or out of march formation the unit must be ordered to do so. It takes time to perform this action. When forming from a line of march you should indicate any specifics that you deem necessary.
  • Orders to Formed Units
    When a unit has formed out of line of march it may be given one of the following orders on how to deal with a real, expected, or imagined enemy.
    1. Hold (Assumed) - Stay in formation and await orders.
    2. Probe - Most of force stays in place. A small part of the unit is sent forward to obtain information on the enemy.
    3. Advance - Unit moves forward in formation
    4. Withdraw - Unit moves backward in formation.
    5. Attack - Unit moves forward and engages the enemy.
  • Cavalry
    In addition to the above orders cavalry may be ordered to:
    1. Scout - Move in some direction and feel for the enemy.
    2. Screen - Try to deny information to enemy scouts.
    3. Picket - Remain stationary but send out small groups to watch important locations.
    You can scout or screen a number of hexes equal to the number of regiments in the cavalry brigade. You can picket up to twice that number. In all cases the cavalry will have dispersed to some extent in order to fulfill its objectives and will take time to reassemble.
  • Other Notes
    A unit may be given more than one order at a time - such as march to a certain location and form.
    When formed a unit's trains will be about a mile to its rear unless ordered otherwise.
    Units may be issued "follow" orders. In this case they will do whatever the unit they are ordered to follow does.
    Many orders will take more than a day to execute.

IX. Supply

For a unit to be considered in supply it must be within four miles by road or in the same hex as its supply trains, or a depot. Supplies carried with the unit are not depleted if a depot can be used.
There are three levels in the supply network
  1. Source - This is where the supplies come from. They are Richmond and Washington. These contain an unlimited number of supplies as long as an unbroken rail line exists between the city and the edge of the map.
  2. Depot - Limited stores of supplies that allow the army to operate further afield. These may be created during the campaign.
  3. Trains - These are the supplies carried in wagons with the units to allow them to move and fight.
Supply is abstracted into three components:
  1. Food - General term to refer to food and equipment.
  2. Ammunition - Ammunition and weapons repair
  3. Ambulances - Medical supplies and transport for injured.

  1. Supply Capacity
    • Source - If cut off from a rail link capitals hold 200 days of food and 50 days of ammunition.
    • Depot - A maximum capacity of 100 days of food and 25 days of ammunition.
    • Trains - Each division has trains for six days of food and two days of ammunition for each brigade in the division. There are also enough ambulances for ten percent of the division's strength.
    • Towns and cities - Any town or city may contain an unlimited number of casualties and has unlimited medical supplies.
      A "day" of supply is how much one brigade will use in one campaign day, whether eating or fighting (one day of battle is one day of ammunition - regardless of how often the unit actually fires).

  2. Resupply
    1. Depots are restocked automatically if an unbroken rail link (or water for union) can be traced to the source. Depots connected by an unbroken road line restock at some percent of capacity per day.
    2. Trains
      1. Ammunition may be resupplied by one of the following:
        • Spending one day in a capital or depot with supplies
        • Spending one day on an unbroken rail line leading to a source or depot (unit may be moving).
        • Capturing enemy ammunition wagons.
      2. Food may be resupplied in a variety of ways:
        • As long as the unit is on an unbroken rail link to a depot or source, food is automatically resupplied.
        • Spending one day in a capital or depot with supplies.
        • Remaining in place for one day within the supply radius of a depot, or within 4 miles of a railroad that leads to a depot.
        • Capturing enemy supply wagons.
        • Foraging from the countryside:
      Food availability varies by area. Each hex has a maximum number of "food days" that can be extracted from it. The supply is greatest in cities, and least in open country. Food may be gathered by looting or requisitioning it.
      • To loot food, movement is reduced as you move through a hex. Each hex moved through will be plundered until your unit's wagons are full or all food is extracted.
      • To requisitioning food, spend one day in a hex without moving. That hex will be bought out until your unit's wagons are full or the food is exhausted.
      • Once food in a hex is gone it will not be replaced during the campaign until the fall.
    3. Ambulances - Casualties in ambulances may be dropped off in any city or town moved through with no penalty.

    Supply trains must operate as a single unit at all times. Trains cannot loot food unless accompanied by a military unit.

  3. Supply Effects
    A unit is in supply if a capital, depot, or its trains are within four miles by road, or in the same hex as the unit, and there are supplies available, or if on an unbroken rail line leading to a supply depot or source. Units are out of supply otherwise.
    1. In Supply
      • Food - Movement is unaffected.
      • Ammunition - Unit may resupply on the tabletop in a battle, and all units's ammunition is resupplied after the battle.
      • Ambulances - Units will have reduced losses from wounds in battle (for this purpose, a controlled town or city within eight miles by road, or in the hex with the unit counts as unlimited ambulance space).
    2. Out of Supply
      • Food
        1. Moving - There will be a decreased ability to march and increased straggling. Moving without food for over two days will result in a morale penalty, and there may be permanent losses to the unit.
        2. Stationary - Units may forage from the countryside. One regiment from each brigade will be sent to gather supplies each day. Once food in the hex is exhausted, the unit must move or will suffer a morale penalty and may suffer permanent losses.
      • Ammunition - Units may not resupply on table and may not claim opening volley. There will be an increased chance of running out of ammunition. Units that run out of ammunition will remain out until resupplied.

  4. Creating Depots
    Union may create two, and Confederate one depot at a time. Issue orders to the capital specifying location. Creation time varies.

  5. Other supply notes
    1. Cavalry never need food or ambulances, and carries ammunition for one battle. They resupply ammunition from the army reserve or any depot.
    2. Army Reserve carries additional ammunition which may be used by any unit once transferred to their trains.
    3. If trains are captured their supplies may be either stored or transferred. A unit may never have more than its allotted number of trains.
    4. If a unit's trains are captured or destroyed the unit must return to the capital or a depot to acquire new trains, or use captured trains.
    5. Units will use other unit's supplies only rarely.
    6. If brigades are acting independently they may live off the land. They may not force march and if formed one regiment is "detached" to gather supplies. The food reserves in the hex they occupy will be depleted. If the hex contains no reserves, they must move.
    7. Minor skirmishes do not deplete ammunition.

X. Miscellaneous

  1. Destruction of features on the campaign map
    Bridges, railroads, towns and cities may be destroyed or disrupted during the campaign. Simply order the unit to do so and if they occupy the hex with the feature they will attempt to destroy it. Acts of destruction take time.
  2. Repair of features on the campaign map
    Destroyed towns and cities cannot be rebuilt. Road bridges may be replaced by non cavalry units occupying the hex with orders to do so. Local citizens may repair the bridge with no intervention form the player, but this will take some time. Railroads and railroad bridges will be repaired by the central government if the hex is in friendly control.
  3. Telegraph lines
    These follow railroads with branch lines to towns not on the line. They may be cut or tapped by the enemy or partisans. Once cut, they will be replaced by the central government once the area is under friendly control.
  4. Pontoon Trains
    If these are available they occupy four miles of road, and move as supply trains. They take about one day to construct and one day to disassemble.
  5. Depots and Supply Trains
    These may be captured by the enemy if unprotected. You may order their destruction if you have a military unit at the depot or with the trains.
  6. Capitals
    Both Washington and Richmond have garrisons and fortifications.
  7. Friendly Control
    All of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia west of the South Branch of the Potomac are friendly to the Union. The remaining area is friendly to the Confederates. Additionally, should a Confederate infantry unit move south of Westminster, Maryland, and east of Washington, that area in Maryland will become friendly to the Confederates. When operating in unfriendly territory, an infantry unit generally extends a "friendly zone" for eight miles around itself, and cavalry for four miles. Areas behind clearly defined front lines are also usually friendly until the opposing side's forces move nearby.
  8. Railroad Trains and Water Transport.
    To use either of these for transport write a request to the central government specifying in what city or town the transportation should be gathered in, and the unit you wish to transport. It takes more time to gather the transportation for larger units. You will be notified when the requested transportation is available.
  9. Destroying food production.
    Areas can be stripped of their intrinsic food supply. To do so order your units to ravage the countryside, and each brigade engaged in such activity will destroy some of the hex's food.